Ford Duratec engine
From Ford Wiki
|Type||8 (small cars) SOHC|
16 (Straight-4) DOHC
24 (V6) DOHC
48 (V12) DOHC
Straight-4 (up to 2.3 L)
60° V6 (up to 3.7 L)
60° V12 (6.0 L)
|Engine displacement||1.3 L (79 CID)|
1.6 L (97 CID)
1.8 L (110 CID)
2.0 L (122 CID)
2.3 L (140 Cubic inch)
2.5 L (155 CID)
3.0 L (181 CID)
3.5 L (213 CID)
3.7 L (227 CID)
Variable valve timing
|Fuel system||Electronic fuel injection or Direct injection, badged SCI|
The Duratec is a range of Straight-4, V6 and V12-cylinder Gasoline engines used in Ford cars.
Originally there was a 2.5 L V6 introduced with the Ford Contour. When the 2000 Mondeo was introduced, the 1.8 L and 2.0 L engines became Duratecs too.
Now there are engines of all sizes called Duratec. In North America, Ford uses the Duratec name on all its dual overhead cam 4 and 6 cylinder engines. In Europe, all Ford petrol engines are called Duratec.
|Duratec 8v 60 PS||Kent||1.3 L (79.3 CID; 1299 cc)||–present||Overhead valve Straight-4|
|Duratec 8v 70 PS||Kent||1.3 L (79.1 CID; 1297 cc)|
1.6 L (97.45 CID; 1597 cc)
|Duratec SCi||Mazda MZR engine||1.8 L (110 CID; 1798 cc)||2003–present||DOHC Gasoline direct injection I4|
|Duratec||Mazda MZR engine||1.6 L (97.51 CID; 1598 cc)|
1.8 L (110 CID; 1798 cc)
2.0 L (122 CID; 1999 cc)
2.3 L (138 CID; 2261 cc)
|Duratec 25||Mondeo||2.5 L (155 CID; 2544 cc)||1994–2002||DOHC V6|
|Duratec 30||Mondeo||3.0 L (181 CID; 2967 cc)||1996–present||DOHC V6|
|Duratec 35||Cyclone||3.5 L (213 CID; 3492 cc)||2006–present||DOHC V6|
|Duratec 37||Cyclone||3.7 L (227 CID; 3721 cc)||2007–present||DOHC V6|
The Duratec HE is the name used by Ford of Europe for its family of small Straight-4 and V6 gasoline engines. The family includes 1.8 L (110 CID; 1796 cc) and 2.0 L (122 CID; 1999 cc) DOHC 16-valve engines and the 2.5 L V6 (also called the Duratec 25). European 1.8 L and 2.0 L Duratec HE engines are built at the Valencia Engine Plant in Spain. The compression rate is 10.8:1.
The Focus RS featured a Turbocharged version of the 2.0 L Zetec unit producing 215 Horsepower (158 kW) and 310 N·m (229 ft·lbf) of Torque, although badged a Duratec-RS.
Focus C-Max and Focus Mk II versions use a Drive-by-wire throttle to improve responsiveness.
Ford/Mazda global straight-4
Beginning in 2004, Ford dropped the old 4-cylinder Zetec engines in favor of Mazda's Mazda Z engine design. Thus, 2005 and present Duratec 4-cylinder engines are Mazdas. This includes the 2.0 L Duratec 20 the 2.3 L Duratec 23 and the all new 2.5 L Duratec 25. The engine is currently built by Ford in Chihuahua, Mexico; Dearborn, Michigan; Valencia, Spain; Laguna, Philippines; and Nanjing, China.
The 993 is a 2.0 L (122 CID; 1998 cc) version built in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico. Bore is 87.5 mm (3.44 in) and stroke is 83.1 mm (3.27 in).
It is used in the US/Argentinian Focus and the Brazilian Ford EcoSport. (European Fiesta ST, Ford Focus and Focus C-Max, Mondeo, S-Max, Transit and Galaxy use Duratec HE engines). On the 2007 Focus, output is 136 hp (101 kW) at 6000 rpm with 136 ft·lbf (184 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2007 Focus sold in the US states of CA, NY, MA, VT and ME comes with the required Partial zero-emissions vehicle Emissions 20E version which produces 130 hp (97 kW) at 6000 rpm with 129 ft·lbf (175 N·m) of torque at 4000 rpm. The PZEV is available as an option in border states. The compression ratio for both versions is 10:1. On the 2008 Focus, output is 140 hp (100 kW) at 6000 rpm with 136 ft·lbf (184 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2008 Focus sold in the US states of CA, NY, MA, VT and ME comes with the required Partial zero-emissions vehicle Emissions 20E version which produces 132 hp (98 kW) at 6000 rpm with 133 ft·lbf (180 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The PZEV is available as an option in border states. The compression ratio for both versions is 10:1. It has an aluminum engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. The cylinders are lined with cast iron. It uses SFI Fuel injection, has Multivalve and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a one-piece cast crankshaft, and a cast aluminum or reinforced plastic Intake manifold. It does not have Variable valve timing. The power output is less than the Mazda version which does have VVT.
The plastic intake manifold on early versions has a major fault due to poor quality materials. The manifold has swirlplates mounted on a square shaft at the aperture where it mounts to the cylinder head. Early 4 cylinder Duratec engines can be ruined when the swirlplates break off and enter a cylinder . Most cases are of single swirlplates but also the shaft can wear and break. Early signs of this fault are evidenced by a ticking noise emanating from the front of the engine. This can occur as early as 25K miles, with failure typically occurring after about 90K miles.
The Duratec 23 is a 2.3 L (140 CID; 2261 cc) variant of the Mazda MZR engine 2.3 L engine. Bore is 3.44 inches (87.5 mm) and stroke is 3.70 inches (94 mm). It has an aluminum engine block with cast-in iron cylinder liners and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. It uses SFI Fuel injection, has Multivalve and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and a one-piece cast crankshaft.
The 23EW was built in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico for use in the American market Focus through the 2007 model year. "EW" in the Ford designation code denotes East-West configuration, or FWD. The Ford Focus version does not have VVT, and its output is 151 hp (113 kW) at 5750 rpm with 154 ft·lbf (209 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. Ford models to use the VVT equipped 2.3 L engines are the Ford Fusion, and Mercury Milan producing 160 hp (120 kW), similar to the original Mazda MZR engine 2.3 L which are all equipped with VVT.
The 23NS is built in Dearborn, Michigan for the Ford Ranger and North American market Mazda B-Series. These engines are tuned for torque-bias making them suitable for light-truck use and are not equipped with VVT or Variable Length Intake Manifold. Output is 143 hp (107 kW) at 5250 rpm with 154 ft·lbf (209 N·m) of torque at 3750 rpm.
- 23EW — FWD/AWD
- 23NS — RWD
The Duratec 23E is a version of the Duratec 23 with California PZEV emissions.
A high-efficiency Atkinson cycle version is used in the Ford Escape Hybrid, Mercury Mariner Hybrid, and Mazda Tribute Hybrid.
The Duratec 25, or Duratec 2.5L I-4, is an evolution of the Duratec 23. 'Duratec 25' should not be confused with the similarly named 2.5L V6 Ford Duratec. The new Duratec 25 is an inline 4-cylinder engine design that is identical to the Mazda MZR engine 2.5L. The bore and stroke have increased to 89mm x 100mm and as such now displaces 2488cc | 151ci. Power has been increased to 171hp@6000rpm and 171lb-ft@4500rpm torque. A Hybrid Duratec 25 will be replacing the Hybrid Duratec 23.
Fuel saving features include adaptive knock control and aggressive deceleration fuel cutoff.
The 1.8 L was the first European Ford engine to use Direct injection technology, badged SCi for Smart Charge Injection. This appeared in the Mondeo in 2003 and is today available on the 2.0 L engine as well as an expected 1.1 L version.
The SCi engines were designed at Ford's Cologne, Germany facility and are assembled in Valencia, Spain. The SCi engine is paired with a specially-designed six-speed Manual transmission.
- The 60 PS (59 hp/44 kW) 1.3 L (79.3 CID; 1299 cc) Duratec 8V is a renamed Endura-E engine,
- The 70 PS (69 hp/51 kW) 1.3 L (79.1 CID; 1297 cc), and 95 PS (94 hp/70 kW) 1.6 L (97.45 CID; 1597 cc) Duratec 8V is the South African-built Zetec-Rocam engine. The 1.3 is also used in the European Ford Ka. In Europe, the 1.3L & 1.6L is used in the Ka, only the 1.3L in Fiesta Mk6.
The 2.5 L and 3.0 L V6 Duratecs are evolutions of the same design, first used in the 1994 Ford Mondeo (1995 Ford Contour in US). It is a modern aluminum DOHC V6 with a 60° bank angle. They were also used in the Ford Cougar.
The Duratec 25 is a 2.5 L (155 CID; 2544 cc) 60° V6 and was introduced in 1994. It was developed for the Ford Contour and used in the Ford Mondeo, Ford Cougar, Jaguar X-Type, and others. The Duratec 25 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1995 and 1996, and the SVT version made the list for 1998 and 1999.
An SVT version produced 195 hp (145 kW) and 165 ft·lbf (224 N·m) in 1998. Further improvements were made in 1999 that raised power output to 200 hp (149 kW) and 169 ft·lbf (229 N·m) and were carried over in the 2000 model. The SVT engine was used in the 1998-2000 Ford Contour SVT.
Bore is 82.4 mm and stroke is 79.5 mm on most 2.5 L Mondeo-derived engines for a total of 2544 cc. Mazda used the same block and camshaft in their 2000 MPV. However, they reduced the size to 2.49 L to keep under a 2.5 L tax cap in Japan. It was replaced in 2002 with the larger 3.0 L Duratec 30-based Mazda AJ.
The 3.0 L Duratec 30 or Mazda AJ was introduced in 1996 as a replacement for the 3.8 L (≈232 cu in) Essex V6 in the up-market versions of the Ford Taurus/Mercury Sable. It has 2967 cc (181 cu in) of displacement and produces between 200 hp (150 kW) and 240 hp (180 kW). The same basic engine is used in the Jaguar S-Type, Lincoln LS, Mazda MPV, Mazda 6, Mondeo ST220 and many other Ford vehicles. It is essentially a bored-out (to 89 mm) Duratec 25 and is built in Ford Motor Company's Cleveland Engine #2 plant in Cleveland, Ohio. A slightly modified version for the Ford Five Hundred entered production at the Cleveland #1 plant in 2004.
There are two key versions of the Duratec 30:
- DAMB - The Lincoln LS and Jaguar AJ30 versions have direct-acting mechanical bucket (DAMB) Tappet. Output is 232 hp (173 kW) at 6750 rpm with 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque at 4500 rpm.
- RFF - The Taurus/Sable/Escape version uses roller finger followers (RFF) instead and produces 201 hp (150 kW) at 5900 rpm with 207 lb·ft (281 N·m) of torque at 4400 rpm.
The 2006 Ford Fusion, Mercury Milan, and Lincoln Zephyr feature a version of the Duratec 30 using Variable valve timing. The engine has an output of 221 hp (165 kW) at 6250 rpm, and 205 lb·ft (278 N·m) of torque at 4800 rpm.
A Twin-turbo version of this engine is used in the Noble M400, a British Supercar. The engine is rebuilt and tuned to a max power of 425 bhp (317 kW) at 6500 rpm, with a torque figure of 390 lb·ft (529 N·m) at 5000 rpm. Noble has used forged pistons, an oil cooler, a larger baffled oil sump and extra cooling ducts to maintain its durability.
Mazda's MZI version adds Variable valve timing, as does Jaguar's AJ30. Note that the MZI name is also used in Europe on Mazda's version of the Ford Sigma Straight-4. The 3.0 L, 226 hp (169 kW) V6 used in the Mondeo ST220 is called Duratec ST. The 3.0 L 204 hp (152 kW) V6 in the Mondeo Titanium is called Duratec SE.
The Duratec 35 is a 3.5 L (3496 cc/213 CID) V6 that began production in fall 2006 and is the first member of the all-new Ford Cyclone engine family.  The D35 is an all-aluminum Double overhead camshaft Multivalve 60° bank angle V6 engine with Variable valve timing on the intake camshafts and DAMB tappets. The Duratec 35 is Ultra low emission vehicle compliant and is said to be capable of meeting the Partial zero-emissions vehicle requirement as well.
Rated on 87 octane gasoline the engine currently produces 265 hp (198 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 250 lb·ft (339 N·m) at 4,500 rpm in the following applications:
The engine produces 263 hp (196 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 249 lb·ft (338 N·m) at 4,500 rpm in the following applications:
- 2007–present Lincoln MKZ
- 2008–present Ford Taurus
- 2008–present Ford Taurus X
- 2008–present Mercury Sable
- 2009–present Ford Flex
- 2010 Ford Fusion(Americas) Sport Version
A twin Turbocharger, Gasoline direct injection version of the Duratec 35, featuring the Ecoboost moniker, is expected to become available in the middle to end of 2009 in the:
This engine is currently rated at 355hp and 350lb-ft of torque. The max torque also comes in at just 1500rpm and plateaus across the rev range, thanks to the Honeywell Garrett supplied turbochargers. Lincoln MKR and MKT concepts have been shown making 415hp. This engine has also been unofficially said to be $700 option when it debuts in 2009.
The Duratec 37 a 3.7 L (3721 cc/227 CID) V6 and the second and newest member of the Ford Cyclone engine family. The Duratec 37s additional displacement over the Duratec 35 is achieved through a 3 mm increase in bore diameter which results in a 95.5 mm (3.76 in) bore.
The engine began production in the 2008 Mazda CX-9 under Mazda's MZI moniker and produces 273 hp (204 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) at 4,250 rpm. The American assembled version seen in the 2009 Lincoln MKS produces 275 hp (205 kW) at 6,250 rpm and 276 lb·ft (374 N·m) at 4,250 rpm
Ford's 3.4 L SHO V8 is related to the 2.5 L Mondeo V6. Each cylinder uses the same bore and stroke as the 2.5, but this engine was never officially referred to with the Duratec name.
Aston Martin V12
The 6.0 L V12 used in Aston Martin cars shares some components with the Duratec family. Aston Martin uses this engine in the Aston Martin DB7, Aston Martin V12 Vanquish, and Aston Martin DB9. It is also known as Cosworth Project SG .
- ↑ "2008 Ford Focus [Specifications]". http://www.fordvehicles.com/cars/focus/features/specs//. Retrieved on 2008-08-12.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 
- ↑ Tech Analysis: 2010 Ford Fusion/Mercury Milan powertrains, 38 mpg hybrid!
- ↑ Ford's next step in engine manufacturing | Automotive Design & Production | Find Articles at BNET.com
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 http://www.autoblog.com/2008/08/18/ford-to-charge-700-premium-for-ecoboost/
- ↑ http://www.autoblog.com/2009/01/11/detroit-2009-ford-debuts-3-6l-ecoboost-v6-in-flex/
- ↑ http://www.autobloggreen.com/2008/08/27/new-ford-ecoboost-3-5l-v6-engine-smiles-for-the-camera/
- ↑ 1980 - 1999