Ford Endura-D engine
From Ford Wiki
The Ford Endura-D engine is a 1,753cc Diesel power unit used in a variety of vehicles made by the Ford Motor Company, including the Ford Escort (Europe), Ford Focus, Ford Fiesta, Ford Mondeo, Ford Sierra and Ford Transit Connect.
Originally branded Lynx it had 1.8 DIESEL stamped on its rocker cover, it is an engine which has featured in the Ford range since the late 1980s in models such as the Mk.3 Ford Fiesta, Mk.4 Ford Escort (Europe), Ford Sierra, and Mk.1 Ford Mondeo. The 1.8 itself was a development of the (then all-new) 1.6 Diesel unit, originally first featured in the Mk.3 Ford Escort and Mk.2 Ford Fiesta.
The Endura-DE engine features a Cast iron block and indirect injection style cylinder head, which means there is a combustion chamber built into the cylinder head. This engine makes use of Aluminium for some other components to minimise the weight penalty of the Diesel engine. It has a Single overhead camshaft opening 8 Valves via shim-and-bucket followers, and the camshaft is driven by a toothed belt which is driven from a sprocket on the diesel injection pump; the pump itself driven by another toothed belt from the crankshaft. The diesel injection pump is a rotary distributor type most typically made by Robert Bosch GmbH.
For Ford Fiesta and some Ford Escort (Europe) (typically commercial and base model applications) the Endura-DE engine was a normally aspirated engine producing 60 PS (59 hp/44 kW). However for other Ford Escort (Europe) and Ford Mondeo the Endura-DE also featured a Turbocharger producing 75 PS (74 hp/55 kW) and some models also had an Intercooler and these produced 90 PS (89 hp/66 kW)
A redesign of the engine around 1998 saw it become the Endura-DI sometimes referred to as the TDDI Engine (not to be confused with the 2.0 TDDI used in the Mk.3 Ford Mondeo), it always features a Turbocharger and produces 75 PS (74 hp/55 kW) and is found in Mk.5 Ford Fiesta and Ford Transit Connect. The Endura-DI is often also equipped with an Intercooler, and this increases power output to 90 PS (89 hp/66 kW) and is found in the Ford Focus
The Endura-DI engine features a Cast iron block and direct injection style cylinder head, which means the combustion chamber is in the top of the piston crown. This engine makes use of Aluminium for many other components to minimise the weight penalty of the Diesel engine. It has a Single overhead camshaft opening 8 Valves via shim-and-bucket followers, and the camshaft is driven by a toothed belt which is driven from a sprocket on the diesel injection pump; unusually this pump is driven via gemini (twin) chains from the crankshaft. The diesel injection pump is an electronically controlled rotary distributor type most typically made by Robert Bosch GmbH.
It has a number of improvements over the previous generation of Ford diesel engines, including the electronically-controlled fuel injection pump otherwise known as "fly-by-wire" In addition, the traditional oil sump is replaced with a cast aluminium lower crankcase and a shallow oil pan; there is an oil-to-water cooler, and a great many detail improvements to parts throughout. The engine has been a noted good performer and is a smoother, more powerful unit than the one it replaced.
However, there have been a larger-than-expected number of failures of bearings in this engine, with big-end and small-end connecting rod bearing failures not being uncommon (possibly due to the lack of pressure lubrication to the small ends), and rigid adherence to the servicing schedule is extremely important to ensure engine longevity, unlike the previous models' bulletproof reputation. A larger-than-expected group of owners have suffered small-end failures at around 90,000 miles (140,000 km), and Ford has described this as being "a characteristic of the TDDI engine". Despite this many owners have had faultless reliability from the 1.8 TDDI engine with mileages in excess of 300,000 miles (480,000 km) not unheard of.
Many of the mechanical components used in the TDDI engine were shared or improved in detail for use in the later TDCI common-rail Diesel engine, often referred to as the Duratorq.