Ford Escape Hybrid

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Ford Escape Hybrid
2008 Ford Escape Hybrid
Automotive industryFord Motor Company
Production2004–present
AssemblyKansas City, Missouri
Car classificationCompact SUV
Car body style4-door SUV
Automobile layoutFront-engine design, Front-wheel drive / Four-wheel drive
Automobile platformFord CD2 platform
RelatedMazda Tribute
Mercury Mariner
First generation
Ford Escape Hybrid
Production2004–2007
Internal combustion engine2.3 L (140 cu in, 2261 cc) Duratec 23 Straight-4 Atkinson cycle[1]
Transmission (mechanics)Electronically controlled continuously variable
Wheelbase103.2 in (2621 mm)[1]
Length174.9 in (4442 mm)[1]
Width70.1 in (1781 mm)[1]
Height69.9 in (1775 mm) (w/roof rack) [1]
Fuel capacityConvert/LoffAonDbSoffUSer[1]
Second generation
2008 Ford Escape Hybrid
Production2008–present
Internal combustion engine2008: 2.3 L (140 cu in, 2261 cc)[2]
2009: 2.5 L (152 cu. in, 2488 cc) Straight-4 DOHC 16-valve Atkinson cycle[3]
Transmission (mechanics)Continuously variable transmission
Wheelbase103.1 in (2619 mm)[3]
Length174.7 in (4437 mm)[3]
Width71.1 in (1806 mm)[3]
Height67.7 in (1720 mm)[3]
Fuel capacityConvert/LoffAonDbSoffUSer[3]
Engine compartment of a 2006 Mercury Mariner Hybrid

The Ford Escape Hybrid, launched in 2004, is a Gas-electric hybrid vehicle powered version of the Ford Escape SUV developed by the Ford Motor Company. Built in Kansas City, Missouri, it was the first hybrid Sport utility vehicle to hit the market. A similar vehicle, the Mercury Mariner Hybrid is sold by Ford's Mercury marque. A third variation, the Mazda Tribute Hybrid, arrived in the fall of 2007 as a 2008 Model Year vehicle with a limited production run for the California market.[4]

Hybrid versions can be identified by the Ford leaf road logo.jpg on the front driver's and passenger's doors as well as on the tailgate. In addition, the driver's side window in the cargo area is smaller in size in order to accommodate a ventilation slot for the high voltage battery. There was also a "Special Appearance Package" available as an option on the 2005-2007 Hybrid models. This package replaced the traditional lower cladding of the Escape with a silver finish (see picture).

The Escape hybrid is a "full" hybrid electric system, meaning the system can switch automatically between pure electric power, pure gasoline engine power, or a combination of electric battery and gasoline engine operating together, for maximum performance and efficiency at all speeds and loads. When braking or decelerating, the Escape's hybrid system uses Regenerative braking, where the electric drive motor becomes a generator, converting the vehicle's momentum back to electricity for storage in the batteries. With 155 hp (116 kW), the Hybrid Escape has nearly the same acceleration performance as the conventional 200 hp (150 kW) V6 Escape.

Ford built 17,000 Escape Hybrids in the second half of 2004, four times as many as it had originally planned, and sales figures have remained steady. Starting in 2005 New York City and other citites in the world such as Mexico city began using the Ford Escape Hybrid as Taxicabs:[5]

Model 2005 sales 2006 sales 2007 sales
Ford Escape Hybrid (FEH) 18,797 19,228 21,386[6]
Mercury Mariner Hybrid (MMH) 998 3,375 3,722[6]

Purchasers of 2008 Ford Escape and Mercury Mariner hybrids qualify for US income tax credits between $2,200-3,000.[7]

Ford announced the development of a prototype Hybrid Escape E85, the first hybrid vehicle capable of running on 85% ethanol Flexible-fuel vehicle, although they have not announced any production plans.[8]

Contents

Development


The Escape Hybrid uses technology similar to that used in Toyota's Prius. Ford engineers realized their technology may conflict with patents held by Toyota, which led to a 2004 patent-sharing accord between the companies, licensing Ford's use of some of Toyota's hybrid technology in exchange for Toyota's use of some of Ford's diesel and direct-injection engine technology.[9] Both Ford and Toyota state that Ford received no technical assistance from Toyota in developing the hybrid powertrain, but that some hybrid engine technologies developed by Ford independently were found to be similar to technologies previously patented by Toyota.[10] Aisin Seiki Co., a Japanese automotive components supplier belonging to the Toyota Group, supplies the hybrid Continuously variable transmission for the Escape Hybrid. While Toyota produces its third-generation Prius transmission in-house, Aisin is the only supplier of hybrid transmissions to other manufacturers. Friction has arisen concerning Aisin's allocation of limited production capacity and engineering resources to Ford.[9]

Sanyo Electric Co., which first produced hybrid car batteries in a joint venture with Honda,[11] built the 50 kg (110 lb),330V[12] 5.5 Ah (would make it 1.8kWh storage) , 250-cell Nickel metal hydride battery (NiMH) battery pack for the 2005 Escape Hybrid.[13]

Performance


The Escape Hybrid's 133 Horsepower (99 kW) gasoline Straight-4 engine and 94 hp (70 kW) electric motor combine to give performance similar to the 200 hp (150 kW) V6 engine commonly used in the regular Escape. The hybrid is said to give approximately 75% greater efficiency, with about 33 to 36 mpg-U.S. (6.5-7.1 L/100 km; 40-43 mpg-imp) in city traffic, (and has demonstrated it can travel 400–500 miles (644-805 km) on a single Convert/LoffAoffDbSonUSer tank of gasoline in city driving), and 29 to 31 mpg-U.S. (7.6L-8.1 L/100 km; 35-37 mpg-imp) on the highway. Unlike conventional vehicles, hybrids often achieve better figures in the city because they do not waste power idling and can recover some power when stopping (by using Regenerative braking) that would be wasted on a conventional vehicle.

The Escape Hybrid can accelerate up to approximately 30 miles per hour (48 km/h) on electric, with a gentle acceleration. A maximum distance of 1.5 miles (2.4 km) - 1.8 miles (2.9 km) can be performed on electric before the batteries will discharge and the gasoline will restart. When coasting, if the brake is gently tapped when passing below 30 mph (48 km/h), the gasoline engine will cut off, and the coast will continue with no gasoline being consumed. Electric mode does not perform as well when below 50 °F (10 °C), and performance degrades further as outside temperature drops further.

The Escape Hybrid gives a top speed of 102 mph (163 km/h).[14]

Emissions


The Escape Hybrid meets both California's SULEV and PZEV standards, with tailpipe emissions better than 90% less than the average 2003 new car and zero evaporative emissions.


Plug-in hybrids

Ford Escape plug-in hybrid
Hybrids Plus PHEV battery

Three companies have converted Ford Escape Hybrids to Plug-in under a contract with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and delivered them in 2007:[15]

  • Electrovaya of Toronto Canada
  • Hymotion also of Toronto Canada
  • Hybrids Plus of Boulder Colorado USA

Ford has converted a Ford Escape Hybrid to Plug-in and delivered it to Southern California Edison (SCE) in December 2007 to examine the future of Plug-in hybrid in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid.[16] Under the multi-million-dollar, multi-year project, Ford will convert a demonstration fleet of Ford Escape Hybrids into plug-in hybrids, and SCE will evaluate how the vehicles might interact with the home and the utility's electrical grid. Some of the vehicles will be evaluated "in typical customer settings," according to Ford. [17] [18]

Technology

The Ford and Hybrids Plus conversions are similar: conversion involves the replacement of the original NiMH battery (on the floor of the trunk) with a larger capacity Li-ion battery, in the same location and substantially the same volume as the original battery.

On the other side, the Electrovaya and HiMotion conversions retain the original battery, and augment it with a Li-ion battery that occupies a significant portion of the trunk.

In all cases, the conversion also involves the addition of a charger and of a power plug.

PHEV Version

Ford has created a Plug-In Hybrid version of the Escape, which has been sent to the United States Department of Energy. This vehicle uses E-85, in addition to its electric system. The vehicle's electric power is provided by a 10-kilowatt lithium-ion battery, which allows for a 30-mile (48 km) range at 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) or less. When the battery's charge drops to 30%, the vehicle switches to its four-cylinder engine, assisted by the batteries. The one-of-a-kind vehicle has a display system which shows the driver how efficient the vehicle is at any given time.

If the vehicle uses its engine and is running in traditional hybrid mode, fuel economy is rated at Convert/foutmerg (2.7 L/100 km; 106 mpg-imp) in the city and Convert/foutmerg (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp) on the highway.[19]


See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 http://media.ford.com/products/presskit_display.cfm?vehicle_id=1438&press_section_id=398&make_id=92
  2. http://media.ford.com/products/presskit_display.cfm?vehicle_id=1617&press_section_id=398&make_id=92
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 http://media.ford.com/products/presskit_display.cfm?vehicle_id=1813&press_section_id=398&make_id=92
  4. 2008 Mazda Tribute Hybrid page at Mazda USA web site
  5. Hybrid Sales Figures/Tax Credits for Hybrids Electric Drive Transportation Association. Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
  6. 6.0 6.1 [http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=27548 Ford January 22, 2008 press release
  7. 1/2/2008 Internal Revenue Service - 2008 Model Year Hybrid Vehicles.
  8. Ford Develop's World's First Ethanol-Fueled Hybrid Marrying Two Gasoline-Saving Technologies. (Press release, corporate website). Media.ford.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Tierney, Christine. Ford slams Toyota on hybrids: Detroit automaker may run short on parts from manufacturers affiliated with Asian carmakers. Detroit News, 2005-08-08. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  10. "Ford slams Toyota on hybrids". Detroit News. 08 August 2005. http://www.detnews.com/2005/autosinsider/0508/08/A01-272872.htm. Retrieved on 11 May 2008. 
  11. Honda In Joint Venture With Sanyo To Produce Hybrid Car Batteries. 2002-04-20. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
  12. "Escape specs". Ford. http://www.fordvehicles.com/suvs/escapehybrid/features/specs/. 
  13. "2005 Ford Escape Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (PDF). HEV America, U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. 2005. http://avt.inl.gov/pdf/hev/escape2005hevamerica.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-08-07. 
  14. Green Car Advisor - Ford's Plug-In Escape Hybrid Arrives for SoCal Test
  15. NYS Governor Announces Winners for PHEV Conversions
  16. Media.Ford.Com: Ford Delivers First Escape Plug-In Hybrid To Southern California Edison
  17. EERE News: EERE Network News
  18. Ford Motor Company - Press Release - Ford Motor Company And Southern California Edison Join Forces To Advance A New Transportation And Energy Vision
  19. Ford Motor Company - Press Release - Ford Motor Company Delivers Flexible Fuel, Plug-In Vehicle to Department of Energy

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