Ford Modular engine
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
|Also called||Ford Triton|
|Type||90° V8 and V10|
|Predecessor||Ford Windsor V8|
Ford 385 V8
|Successor||Ford Boss engine|
|Bore||3.552 in (90.2 mm),|
3.700 in (94 mm)
|Stroke||3.543 in (90 mm),|
4.165 in (105.8 mm)
|Displacement||281 CID (4601 cc)|
305 CID (4992 cc)
330 CID (5408 cc)
413 CID (6760 cc)
|Valvetrain||OHC with Roller Finger Followers|
The Modular engine is Ford Motor Company's current high volume overhead camshaft (OHC) V8 and V10 gasoline engine family. It gradually replaced the Windsor small-block and 385 big-block engines over several years in the mid-1990s. Contrary to popular belief, the Modular engine did not get its name from its design or sharing of certain parts among the engine family. Instead, the name was derived from a manufacturing plant protocol, "Modular", where the plant and its tooling could be changed out in a matter of hours to manufacture different versions of the engine family. The Modular engines are used in various Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury vehicles. Modular engines used in Ford trucks have been marketed under the Triton name since 1997 while the InTech name was used for a time at Lincoln for vehicles equipped with DOHC versions of the engines.
Over the years, the 4.6 has been offered in 2-valve SOHC, 3-valve SOHC, and 4-valve DOHC versions. It has also been produced with both iron and aluminum blocks. The 4.6 Ls bore and stroke are nearly square at 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and 90 mm (3.543 in) respectively. Deck heights for all 4.6 blocks are 227 mm (8.937 in). Connecting rod length is 150.7 mm (5.933 in) center to center giving the 4.6 L a 1.67:1 rod to stroke ratio. Cylinder bore spacing measures 100 mm (3.937 in) which is common to all members of the Modular engine family.
Until 1999, all car engines were produced at the Romeo plant. In 1999 and 2000, Mustang engines were produced in Windsor. Production was moved back to Romeo in 2001. Most truck engines are from the Windsor plant, however there are many later model trucks with Romeo engines. All aluminum-blocked engines were produced at Romeo. In keeping with traditional Ford practice, as engine design is revised over time and compatibility with previous versions is considered low priority, so that parts from a modular engine made in one model year are not necessarily likely to fit an engine made in another; and parts from an engine manufactured in Romeo are unlikely to fit an engine made in Windsor. The Romeo and Windsor plants have different designs for main bearings, heads (cam caps), camshaft gears (press-on vs. bolt on), valve covers (number of bolts), crankshaft (number of flywheel bolts), and cross bolt fasteners for main bearing caps.
Vehicles equipped with the 16-valve SOHC 4.6 include the following:
- 1991–1993 Lincoln Town Car, 190 hp (142 kW) and 260 lb·ft (353 N·m)
- 1992–1997 Ford Crown Victoria/Mercury Grand Marquis, 210 hp (157 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) with dual exhaust option
- 1998–2000 Ford Crown Victoria/Mercury Grand Marquis, 215 hp (160 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) with dual exhaust option
- 2001–2002 Ford Crown Victoria/Mercury Grand Marquis, 235 hp (175 kW) and 275 lb·ft (373 N·m) with dual exhaust option
- 2003–2004 Ford Crown Victoria/Mercury Grand Marquis, 239 hp (178 kW) and 282 lb·ft (382 N·m) with dual exhaust option
- 2004–present Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor, 250 hp (186 kW) and 287 lb·ft (389 N·m)
- 1994–1997 Lincoln Town Car, 210 hp (157 kW)
- 1994–1995 Ford Thunderbird, 205 hp (153 kW) and 265 lb·ft (359 N·m)
- 1996–1997 Ford Thunderbird, 205 hp (153 kW) and 280 lb·ft (380 N·m)
- 1994–1995 Mercury Cougar, 205 hp (153 kW) and 265 lb·ft (359 N·m)
- 1996–1997 Mercury Cougar, 205 hp (153 kW) and 280 lb·ft (380 N·m)
- 1998–2000 Lincoln Town Car, 205 hp (153 kW)
- 2001–2002 Lincoln Town Car, 235 hp (175 kW)
- 2003–2004 Lincoln Town Car, 239 hp (178 kW)
- 2002–2005 Ford Explorer, 239 hp (178 kW) and 282 lb·ft (382 N·m)
- 1996–1997 Ford Mustang, 215 hp (160 kW) and 285 lb·ft (386 N·m)
- 1998 Ford Mustang, 225 hp (168 kW) and 290 lb·ft (393 N·m)
- 1999–2004 Ford Mustang, 260 hp (194 kW) and 302 lb·ft (409 N·m)
- 1997–present Ford F-Series, 248 hp (185 kW) and 294 lb·ft (399 N·m) ratings for 2007 and later model year F-Series
- 1997–present Ford E-Series, 225 hp (168 kW) and 286 lb·ft (388 N·m) ratings for 2001 and later model year E-Series
The engines are equipped with an electronic Charge Motion Control Valve (CMCV) system that provides increased charge motion at low engine speeds for improved emissions and low-rpm torque. Cylinder block material varies between aluminum used in the 2005+ Mustang GT and cast iron used in the 2006+ Ford Explorer and the 2007+ Ford Explorer Sport Trac (see below), though the same aluminum heads are used in all applications.
The 3-valve SOHC 4.6 L engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2005–2008.
Vehicles equipped with the 4.6 L 24-valve SOHC include the following:
- 2005–2009 Ford Mustang, 4.6 L, 300 hp (224 kW) and 320 lb·ft (433 N·m)
- 2006–present Ford Explorer, 4.6 L, 292 hp (218 kW) and 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
- 2007–present Ford Explorer Sport Trac, 4.6 L, 292 hp (218 kW) and 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
- 2009 Ford F-Series, 4.6 L, 292 hp (218 kW) and 320 lb·ft (433 N·m)
- 2010 Ford Mustang, 4.6 L, 315 hp (235 kW) and 325 lb·ft (440 N·m)
The 1993–1998 4-valve engines featured cylinder heads with two intake ports per cylinder (split-port) and variable runner length intake manifolds with either vacuum or electrically activated intake manifold runner controls (IMRC) depending on application. The engine was revised for 1999 with new cylinder heads featuring tumble-style intake ports, new camshaft profiles, and fixed runner-length intake manifolds. These changes resulted in more power, torque and a broader powerband when compared to the earlier 4-valve engines.
All 4.6 L 4-valve engines featured aluminum engine blocks with 6-bolt main bearing caps, with the only exception being the 2003–2004 SVT Cobra which had a 4-bolt main cast iron block. The 1999 and earlier engines featured an aluminum block cast in Italy by Fiat subsidiary Teksid S.p.A. Since 1996, all of the 4.6 L 4-valve engines manufactured for use in the SVT Cobra have been hand-built by SVT technicians at Ford's Romeo, Michigan plant.
The 4-valve DOHC 4.6 L engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1996.
- 1993–1998 Lincoln Mark VIII, 280 hp (209 kW) and 285 lb·ft (386 N·m)
- 1995–1997 Lincoln Continental, 260 hp (194 kW) and 265 lb·ft (359 N·m)
- 1996–1998 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra, 305 hp (227 kW) and 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
- 1995–1998 Lincoln Mark VIII LSC, 290 hp (216 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m)
- 1998–2002 Lincoln Continental, 275 hp (205 kW) and 275 lb·ft (373 N·m)
- 1999/2001 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra, 320 hp (239 kW) and 317 lb·ft (430 N·m)
- 2000–2008 Panoz Esperante, 420 hp (313 kW) and 320 lb·ft (434 N·m) 
- 2003 Ford Mustang Mach 1, 305 hp (227 kW) and 320 lb·ft (434 N·m)
- 2004 Ford Mustang Mach 1, 310 hp (231 kW) and 335 lb·ft (454 N·m) 
- 2003–2004 Mercury Marauder, 302 hp (225 kW) and 318 lb·ft (431 N·m)
- 2003–2005 Lincoln Aviator, 302 hp (225 kW) and 318 lb·ft (431 N·m)
- 2003–2004 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra, Iron block, Supercharged, 390 hp (291 kW) and 390 lb·ft (529 N·m)
The 5.4 L (5408 cc, 330 CID) V8 is a member of the Modular engine family first introduced in the redesigned 1997 Ford F-150 as a Triton V8. Bore diameter is 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and stroke is 105.8 mm (4.165 in), the increased stroke necessitated a taller 256 mm (10.079 in) engine block deck height. A 169.1 mm (6.658 in) connecting rod length is used to achieve a 1.60:1 rod to stroke ratio. The 5.4 L is built in Windsor, Ontario at the Windsor Engine plant. The engine has been available in three different configurations since its 1997 introduction:
Introduced in 1997, the SOHC 2-valve 5.4 L has a cast iron engine block and aluminum cylinder heads. The 5.4 L features multi-port fuel injection, roller followers, fracture-split powder metal connecting rods, and in some applications a forged steel crankshaft.
The 2-valve SOHC 5.4 L engine was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1997–1998 and 2000–2002.
- 1997–2004 Ford F-Series, 2-valve SOHC, 260 hp (194 kW) and 350 lb·ft (475 N·m) ratings for 1999 and later model years
- 1997–2004 Ford Expedition, 2-valve SOHC, 260 hp (194 kW) and 350 lb·ft (475 N·m) ratings for 1999 and later model years
- 1997–present Ford E-Series, 2-valve SOHC, 255 hp (190 kW) and 350 lb·ft (475 N·m) ratings for 1999 and later model years
- 1999–2004 Ford SVT Lightning, 2-valve SOHC, Supercharged, 380 hp (283 kW) and 450 lb·ft (610 N·m) ratings for 2001 and later model years
In 2003, Ford introduced a new 3-valve SOHC cylinder head with variable camshaft timing (VCT), improving power and torque over the previous 2-valve SOHC version. The 3-valve cylinder head was first used on the 2003 Ford Fairmont 5.4 L Barra 220 engine in Australia. The 3-valve 5.4 L was introduced to the North American market in the redesigned 2004 Ford F-150.
- 2003–2005 Ford Fairmont, 3-valve SOHC, 295 hp (220 kW) and 347 lb·ft (470 N·m)
- 2003–2004 Ford Fairlane G220, 3-valve SOHC, 295 hp (220 kW) and 347 lb·ft (470 N·m)
- 2004–2008 Ford F-Series, 3-valve SOHC, 300 hp (224 kW) and 365 lb·ft (495 N·m)
- 2005–present Ford Expedition, 3-valve SOHC, 300 hp (224 kW) and 365 lb·ft (495 N·m)
- 2005–present Lincoln Navigator, 3-valve SOHC, 300 hp (224 kW) and 365 lb·ft (495 N·m)
- 2005–2007 Ford Fairlane G8, 3-valve SOHC, 309 hp (230 kW) and 369 lb·ft (500 N·m)
- 2006–2007 Ford Fairmont, 3-valve SOHC, 309 hp (230 kW) and 369 lb·ft (500 N·m)
- 2009 Ford F-Series, 3-valve SOHC, 320 hp (239 kW) and 390 lb·ft (529 N·m) ratings on e85 biofuel
In 1999, Ford introduced the DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L in the Lincoln Navigator under the InTech moniker, making it the second engine to use this name. Ford later used versions of the DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L in the 2000 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R, the Ford GT sports car, and the Ford Shelby GT500. The DOHC 4-valve 5.4 L is also used in the Ford Falcon line in Australia under the Boss moniker.
The SVT Cobra R version of the 5.4 L 4-valve V8 had several key differences from its Lincoln counterpart. While the iron block and forged steel crankshaft were sourced directly from the InTech 5.4 L, the Cobra R powerplant benefited from new, high-flow cylinder heads that were designed with features developed for Ford's "Rough Rider" off-road racing program, application specific camshafts with higher lift and more duration than other Modular cams, forged I-beam connecting rods sourced from Carillo, forged pistons that provided a 9.6:1 compression ratio, and a unique high-flow "cross-ram" style aluminum intake manifold. The Cobra R was rated at 385 hp (287 kW) and 385 lb·ft (522 N·m) though chassis dynamometer results have shown these ratings to be conservative with unmodified Cobra Rs often producing nearly 380 hp (280 kW) at the rear wheels.
The Ford GT version of the 5.4 L is a highly-specialized version of the Modular engine. It is an all-aluminum, dry-sump 5.4 L 4-valve DOHC with a Lysholm screw-type supercharger and showcases numerous technological features, such as dual fuel injectors per cylinder and oil squirters for the piston skirts, not found in other Ford Modular engines. The GT 5.4 L benefits from an improved version of the high-flow 2000 Cobra R cylinder head and unique high-lift camshafts. The GT is rated at 550 hp (410 kW) and 500 ft·lbf (678 N·m), though independent tests conducted on chassis dynamometers have shown these numbers to be conservative, with as delivered Ford GTs often producing nearly 550 hp (410 kW) at the rear wheels.
The Shelby GT500 uses an iron block 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L with an Eaton M122H Roots type supercharger and air-to-liquid intercooler. The GT500 5.4 L shares its high-flow cylinder head castings with the Ford GT, with only minor machining differences, and shares camshafts with the 2003–2004 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra; which have less lift and duration than the Ford GT camshafts. All of the 5.4 L 4-valve engines destined for use in SVT vehicles, such as the Ford GT and Shelby GT500, have been hand-built by technicians at Ford's Romeo, Michigan plant.
- 1999–2004 Lincoln Navigator, 4-valve DOHC, 300 hp (224 kW) and 355 lb·ft (481 N·m)
- 2000 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra R, 4-valve DOHC, 385 hp (287 kW) and 385 lb·ft (522 N·m)
- 2002–2005 Ford Falcon XR8, 4-valve DOHC, 349 hp (260 kW) and 369 lb·ft (500 N·m)
- 2005–2006 Ford GT, 4-valve DOHC, Aluminum Block, Supercharged, 550 hp (410 kW) and 500 lb·ft (678 N·m)
- 2006 Ford Falcon FPV GT, 4-valve DOHC, 389 hp (290 kW) and 384 lb·ft (521 N·m)
- 2007–2009 Ford Shelby GT500, 4-valve DOHC, Supercharged, 500 hp (373 kW) and 480 lb·ft (651 N·m) SAE J1349 certified
- 2007 Ford Falcon FPV GT Cobra, 4-valve DOHC, 405 hp (302 kW) and 398 lb·ft (540 N·m)
- 2008 Ford Falcon FPV GT, 4-valve DOHC, 422 hp (315 kW) and 406.5 lb·ft (551 N·m)
- 2010 Ford Shelby GT500, 4-valve DOHC, Supercharged, 540 hp (403 kW) and 510 lb·ft (691 N·m)
6.8 L V10
The 6.8 L (6760 cc, 413 CID) V10 is another variation of the Modular family created for use in large trucks. Bore size is 90.2 mm (3.552 in) and stroke is 105.8 mm (4.165 in), identical to the 5.4 L V8. Both 2-valve and 3-valve versions are currently produced. The 6.8 L uses a balance shaft to quell vibrations inherent to a 90° bank angle V10 engine configuration. The 2-valve version, built at Ford's Windsor, Ontario LVL engine line, was first introduced in 1997. For 2005, Ford introduced a 3-valve non-VCT version of the 6.8 L V10 . The 3-valve engine is built alongside the 2-valve engine at Ford's Windsor, Ontario engine plant.
Vehicles equipped with the 6.8 L V10 Modular engine include the following:
- 1997–present Ford E-Series, 2-valve SOHC, 305 hp (227 kW) and 420 lb·ft (569 N·m) ratings for 2000 and later model years 2V V10 rated at 265HP @ 4250; 405lb ft @ 2750 for 1997-9
- 1999–2004 Ford F-Series Super Duty, 2-valve SOHC, 310 hp (231 kW) and 425 lb·ft (576 N·m) ratings for 2000 and later model years
- 2000–2005 Ford Excursion, 2-valve SOHC, 310 hp (231 kW) and 425 lb·ft (576 N·m)
- 2005–present Ford F-Series Super Duty, 3-valve SOHC, 362 hp (270 kW) and 457 lb·ft (620 N·m).
5.0 L Cammer
In 2005, Ford Racing Performance Parts introduced a 5.0 L (4992 cc, 305 CID) V8 crate engine for use in motor racing and home-made performance cars, officially called M-6007-T50EA, but more widely known as "Cammer". Since then, other higher performance variations of the Cammer have been introduced for Grand-Am Cup and European FIA. All versions of the Cammer are DOHC 4-valve per cylinder designs with a 94 mm (3.700 in) bore and a 90 mm (3.543 in) stroke. The Cammer achieves its larger 94 mm bore by resleeving a production 4.6 L aluminum block.
The T50 Cammer crate engine, the least expensive and most street oriented version, utilizes derivatives of the cylinder heads, variable runner-length magnesium intake manifold, and camshafts first used in the 2000 FR500 Mustang concept car. These parts are unique to the T50 Cammer crate engine and are not found in any other production Modular applications. The T50 has an 11.0:1 compression ratio and exceeds 415 horsepower (309 kW) with the proper exhaust manifolds.
The Cammer that has seen success in Grand Am Cup powering the Mustang FR500C is officially called M-6007-R50 and features a unique dual plenum, fixed runner-length magnesium intake manifold, Ford GT aluminum cylinder heads, unique camshafts of unrevealed specifications, and an 11.0:1 compression ratio. The R50 Cammer produces over 425 hp (317 kW) despite being fitted with a Grand Am Cup-supplied "restrictor plate" mounted directly aft of the throttle body. Upon introduction the R50 Cammer-powered Mustang FR500C proved to be dominant in Grand-Am Cup, having achieved five victories and podium appearances in nearly every race in the GS class during the 2005 season, giving David Empringham the championship title with the Multimatic Motorsports team, and Ford the manufacturer's title.
Robert Yates publicly expressed interest in using a similar 5.0 L 4-valve DOHC Modular V8 to compete in the NASCAR Winston (now Sprint) Cup series. Roush-Yates currently supplies a naturally aspirated 550 hp (410 kW) 5.0 L Cammer for the Mustang FR500GT, also known as the "Man-Racer", that participates in FIA GT3 European Championship.
Ford of Australia
Ford Australia uses 5.4 L Modular V8s in the Ford Falcon and previously on the Ford Fairlane sedan model ranges, as well as in its high performance Ford Performance Vehicles (FPV) division models. The DOHC 5.4 L V8s are coined Boss by Ford Australia while the SOHC versions were coined Barra, with a number designation referring to power output in kW. The SOHC Barra engines were, and the DOHC Boss short blocks and cylinder heads are built in Windsor, Ontario. The Boss engines include some locally sourced parts such as intake and pistons. All are built with cast-iron blocks.
Ford of Australia 5.4 L engines include:
- Barra 220 3-valve SOHC 5.4 L V8, 295 hp (220 kW) @ 4750 rpm, 347 lb·ft (470 N·m) @ 3250 rpm
- Barra 230 3-valve SOHC 5.4 L V8, 309 hp (230 kW) @ 5350 rpm, 369 lb·ft (500 N·m) @ 3500 rpm
- Boss 260 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L V8, 349 hp (260 kW) @ 5250 rpm, 369 lb·ft (500 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
- Boss 290 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L V8, 389 hp (290 kW) @ 5500 rpm, 384 lb·ft (521 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
- Boss 302 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L V8, 405 hp (302 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 398 lb·ft (540 N·m) @ 4750 rpm
- Boss 315 4-valve DOHC 5.4 L V8, 422 hp (315 kW) @ 6500 rpm, 406.5 lb·ft (551 N·m) @ 4750 rpm
The Koenigsegg CCR used a modified, Rotrex supercharged Ford Modular 4-valve DOHC 4.7L V8, which produced 806 hp (601 kW), to achieve a top speed of 241 mph (388 km/h). This certified top speed was recorded on February 28, 2005 in Nardo, Italy and broke the McLaren F1's world record for fastest production car.  The accomplishment was recognized by Guinness World Records in 2005, who gave the Koenigsegg CCR the official title of World's Fastest Production Car. The Koenigsegg record was broken several months later by the Bugatti Veyron. This engine is the basis for Koenigsegg's twin-supercharged flexible fuel V8 seen in the CCX.
Intake Manifold Defect
Starting in 1996, Ford began installing a DuPont Zytel nylon-composite intake manifold onto the 2-valve SOHC engines which were found to crack at the front coolant crossover, leaking coolant and possibly causing engine failure. A class-action suit was filed on behalf of owners, resulting in a settlement announced on December 17, 2005. Starting with the 2002 model year, and implemented halfway through the 2001 lineup, Ford began using a revised DuPont Zytel nylon-composite intake manifold with an aluminum front coolant crossover that corrected the issue. Replacement intakes were also made available for 1996–2001 engines.
The following vehicles were included in this class-action suit settlement:
- Mercury Grand Marquis, 1996–2001
- Lincoln Town Car, 1996–2001
- Ford Crown Victoria, 1996–2001
- Mercury Cougar, 1996–1997
- Ford Thunderbird, 1996–1997
- Ford Mustang, 6/24/1997–2001 (some vehicles)
- Ford Explorer, early 2002
-  "Ford readies its mod squad - 32-valve 4.6 L Modular V-8 engine to be introduced late this year in the Lincoln Mark VIII automobile".
- "Ford Vehicles: Get Specifications F-150". Ford Motor Company. http://www.fordvehicles.com/trucks/f150/features/specs/. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. "Engine type: 5.4L Triton SOHC 24-valve V8... Displacement (cu. in.): 330 CID"
- High Performance Ford Engine Parts Interchange, George Reid, SA Publications, 56
- Modular Motor Build Up - Part 2 - Engine Block Preparation, Nick Spinelli, ModularFords.com
- Ford Motor Company. 1993 Lincoln Mark VIII, pages 5–6,18. 1993. MarkVIII.org. http://www.markviii.org/LOD2/1993brochure/FrameSet.htm
- When Factory Automation Just Isn't Appropriate : Industrial Market Trends
- Ford's Power Trip
- "Ford Engines - Technical Focus - Winding Road - September 2006 :: Winding Road". http://www.windingroad.com/features-page/ford-engines/. Retrieved on March 4, 2008.
-  Robert Yates on Modulars in Winston Cup.
-  Robert Yates saw the light.
-  "While we know Robert Yates is personally interested in promoting the Modular engine for Winston Cup..."
- News: Ford FR500GT Mustang To Go After European FIA Racing With Some Serious Man-Boy Action
- Koenigsegg World Record Press Release
- "Ford Manifold Settlement Administration". Chamberlan v. Ford Settlement. http://www.fordmanifoldsettlement.com/.
- "Ford, plaintiffs finalize manifold suit settlement". Detroit News. http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051217/AUTO01/512170310/1148. Retrieved on December 17, 2005. Administration|accessdate=December 17|accessyear=2005}}
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|Small Block||Windsor V8|
|Medium Block V8||335/Modified V8|
|Big Block||385 V8|